Carreras a la Chilena, Oreste Plath. Autorretrato de Chile Parte 4.

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Don Oreste Plath, el nos relata de su libro "Aproximación Histórica-Folklórica de los Juegos de Chile", Ritos, Mitos y Tradiciones, en uno de sus capítulos las "Carreras a la Chilena".

Editorial Nascimiento, Santiago Chile, 1986.

Están ustedes con Oreste Plath, que nos relata su recopilación de "Carrera a la Chilena".

Carrera a la chilena

Con el Conquistador don Pedro de Valdivia y sus soldados llegaron 75 caballos entre potros y yeguas, para los cuales luego se habilitaron sitios para su cuidado y cría.
En los alrededores de Santiago del Nuevo Extremo, Valdivia hizo construir un gran cercado donde colocó a los potros bajo cuidadores, pagados por la ciudad. Criar potros por esos años era una espléndida recomendación para solicitar cualquiera merced ante el Rey.

campesinos-chilenos-2132.jpgAsí las cosas, en 1545 ya se encuentran disposiciones y multas para los propietarios que dejen pastar libremente a los animales, o para los que tomen caballos o yeguas ajenos.
Por ese año, se contaba con un número de cincuenta yeguas.

Como el aumento del ganado caballar fuera notorio, se usaron las marcas de fuego, las que se registraban en un libro del Cabildo.
En 1553, ya hay necesidad de establecer penas y se dictó una bárbara, como era la de cortar la mano al indio que apedrease o flechase a una yegua.
En el mes de abril de 1553, el Cabildo otorgó un permiso al Capitán Gaspar de Orense, para rifar públicamente un potro, una yegua, un macho y una mula.

En octubre de 1556, el Cabildo dispuso que el día de San Andrés se hiciese un rodeo en la plaza pública, para contar los animales y examinar las marcas.
Después los caballos llenaron la vida deportiva. Las carreras de a caballo con apuestas constituían las delicias de los españoles.

La iglesia por el año 1748, decía "en las carreras de caballo que en todas las calles se frecuentan que más parecen fiestas bacanales".

"El 17 de julio de 1785 se reglamentan las carreras ecuestres y se dan las normas respecto a las apuestas, a la forma de correr, a los días que deben realizarse, sobre los jueces y sus atribuciones.

Estas disposiciones las establece don Ambrosio Benavides Medina que había llegado a Chile por el año 1780 para hacerse cargo de la gobernación del país, función que desempeño hasta el año 1787 fecha en que fallece, había nacido en 1718.

El edicto del Presidente Benavides, en 1785, establece para las carreras del Obispado de Santiago, lo que sigue:

a) Prohibición de levantar  ramadas, poner ventas  y llevar carretas, la gente debía retirarse luego de concluidas las pruebas, sin pernoctar en el lugar.
b) Las apuestas sólo podían cruzarse en dinero, de ningún modo en ganado, alhajas, joyas, ropas, avíos de montar (lo que debía ocurrir de ordinario). Podían, sí, jugarse los caballos del cotejo;
c) El monto de ías posturas no debía exceder de $ 200, entre los dueños de los caballos en la cancha, y de $ 25 entre los mirones.
d) La pista debía estar marcada con tres rayas, a distancia de tres varas cada una, debiendo partir los caballos cuando el juez los estimase en línea. Se castigaba con $ 25 el no hacerlo partir a la orden, mediante falsos alborotos.
e) Se prohibía manguear los caballos durante la carrera, esto es, cargar un corredor al otro.
f) Las competencias tendrían lugar en los días de trabajo, de cuatro a seis de la tarde en verano, y una hora antes en invierno.
g) No podían apostar los veedores, jinetes ni mandadores.
h) Se prohibía llevar perros;
i) No debía alegarse cosa alguna contra estas ordenanzas.

En la época colonial una gran fiesta era el Paseo del estandarte de la noble y leal ciudad. Esta consistían en la formación de una fastuosa comitiva de caballeros montados en corceles de raza andaluza, que se dirigía a casa del Alférez Real y de ahí a la Iglesia Catedral y formaban un desfile, constituyendo toda una fiesta hermosa y aristocrática.

Carrera_a_la_chilena.jpgEntre los juegos de a caballo, estaban las Alcancías, el correr cañas, el correr sortijas.
Las alcancías eran unas bolas llenas de flores, agua de olor, polvos perfumados y que se la tiraban corriendo, unos jinetes a otros, recibiéndolas en un escudo, donde se quebraban; correr cañas, era una pelea a caballo entre diferentes cuadrillas, usando cañas por armas.
Este juego o ejercicio para ostentar destreza, fue introducido en España por los árabes con el nombre de correr o jugar cañas; y correr sortijas, era un torneo, un ejercicio de destreza que consistía en ensartar en la punta de una vara, corriendo a caballo, una sortija pendiente de una cinta a cierta altura.
Las carreras fueron durante ia colonia las más preponderantes entre las diversiones ecuestres y durante los años republicanos pasaron a ser patrimonio exclusivo del hombre del campo.

Las antiguas canchas santiaguinas que se habían conocido en la colonia y otras que se formaron en los primeros años republicanos, como las del Llano de Portales (Barrio Yungay), acabaron por desaparecer.

Las carreras en pelo o a la chilena, que tienen por cancha un camino real, o una alameda, son las que entusiasman más a los campesinos.

El jinete monta sin montura, sin espuelas ni bridas, agarrándose solamente en las crines, llega a la meta. En ocasiones se establecen condiciones. La carrera a la chilena no es un juego de azar, aunque se cruzan apuestas. Ei interés de la ganancia es absolutamente secundario; la carrera se hace por la carrera misma, por el triunfo del animal y por el placer que experimenta el dueño.

LAJINO.CL - BICENTENARIO EN LAJA, Carreras a la Chilena en Laguna Señoraza. Lajino Laja·


Algunas veces se convienen carreras con caballos que representan corrales.
El tiempo ha transformado estas lides y se podría decir que en la actualidad se han convertido en una reunión hípica en que los caballos recorren 150 a 200 metros.

Existe el armado de la carrera que es la distancia, peso de los jinetes, apuesta de los propietarios, los de algún competidor, juez de partida.
Una programación de carreras consiste en una carrera principal y de otras que son armadas en el mismo escenario.
Cuando se ha acordado la carrera con revancha, se efectúa dándose, desde luego, tiro y lado para cada competidor.

El fallo está dado, el Juez de la carrera, el Comisario y los Veedores, lo dictaron.
Entre los sectores campesinos y los villorrios como en ciudades importantes, con motivo de programaciones populares se realizan estas carreras a la chilena.

Origen. Los indios mapuches cuando conocieron y comprendieron al caballo aventajaron a los conquistadores en su dominio. Lautaro, robusto y valiente, arrogante y mandón fue un gran caballista.
Los indios eran buenos jinetes, parecían formar parte del caballo que montaban, ya fuera con montura o sin ella.

La montura mapuche era sencilla: una enjalma, varios cueros de oveja y unos pellones. Todo esto sujeto con una cincha que la dejaban un tanto suelta, para no oprimir a la bestia y cuidarle la fuerza y el aliento. Esto permitía tener siempre ensillado al caballo, es decir, pronto para montarlo.

Con la montura suelta, el jinete sólo se mantenía por el perfecto equilibrio del cuerpo.
Las riendas eran de cuero sin curtir, torcido firmemente o de un trenzado ingenioso que algunas veces solían adornarlo.
Los estribos los usaron de colihue y este era un triángulo, de tamaño suficiente para colocar el dedo grande del pie, después lo tuvieron de plata los caciques.

Daban importancia a las carreras de caballos a lomo desnudo, en pelo. Estas carreras en línea recta, las llamaban Kawel lefun.

Tomaban con anterioridad de la carrera, precauciones mágicas para que aseguraran el éxito de la partida. El caballo que montaba para este tipo de carreras, estaba incorporado a su mundo mítico. A este respecto, para que fuesen más rápidos les daban de beber, desleída en agua, piedra de. bezoar de venados y huanacos a fin de ponerlos más veloces, les hacían comer pájaros de velocísimo vuelo y sus plumas las pasaban por el cuerpo y por las patas para que se les pegara su ligereza.

Se solía colocar en la raya de salida, tierra de cementerio o grasa de puma para que el animal contrario se retrasase.
Los caballos de carrera estaban vedados para las mujeres, porque si estas los montaban perdían su agilidad, a la vez estaba prohibida la presencia de mujeres preñadas al lado del caballo que corría.
Las embarazadas no podían permanecer junto a los jugadores. Tampoco debían atravesar la cancha de carrera por estar tabuada.

Fotos 1), 3) y 4) Carreras a la chilena. 2) Campesinos yendo a participar en las carreras a la chilena.

 

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